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glossary:necrosis [2008/05/03 05:36]
Pat O'Connor
glossary:necrosis [2012/10/16 14:40] (current)
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 +======Necrosis======
 +
 +(1) The death of living [[cell]]s or [[tissue]]s. Necrosis can be due, for example, to ischemia (lack of [[blood]] flow). From the Greek "​nekros"​ (dead body).
 +
 +(2)  ///​ne·cro·sis///​ (ne-kro´sis) pl. necro´ses ​  [Gr.] the morphological changes indicative of [[cell]] death caused by progressive enzymatic degradation;​ it may affect groups of cells or part of a structure or an organ.
 +
 +===== Types of Necrosis =====
 +
 +==== Aseptic necrosis ====
 +Condition in which poor [[blood]] supply to an area of bone leads to bone death. Also called avascular necrosis and osteonecrosis or Necrosis without [[infection]],​ usually in the head of the femur after traumatic hip dislocation.
 +
 +
 +==== Avacular necrosis ====
 +The consequence of temporary or permanent cessation of [[blood flow]] to the bones. The absence of blood causes the bone [[tissue]] to die, resulting in fracture or collapse of the entire bone.
 +
 +==== Balser'​s fatty necrosis ====
 +Gangrenous pancreatitis with omental bursitis and disseminated patches of necrosis of fatty tissues.
 +
 +==== Caseous necrosis ====
 +Cheesy n. - necrosis in which the [[tissue]] is soft, dry and cheesy, occurring typically in [[tuberculosis]].
 +
 +==== Central necrosis ====
 +Necrosis affecting the central portion of an affected bone, [[cell]], or lobule of the [[liver]].
 +
 +==== Cheesy necrosis ====
 +Necrosis in which the [[tissue]] is soft, dry, and cottage cheese–like;​ most often seen in [[tuberculosis]] and syphilis.
 +
 +==== Coagulation necrosis ====
 +Necrosis of a portion of some organ or tissue, with formation of fibrous infarcts, the protoplasm of the cells becoming fixed and opaque by coagulation of the protein elements, the cellular outline persisting for a long time.
 +
 +==== Colliquative necrosis ====
 +That in which the necrotic material becomes softened and liquefied.
 +
 +==== Contraction band necrosis ====
 +A cardiac lesion characterized by hypercontracted myofibrils and contraction bands and mitochondrial damage, caused by calcium influx into dying cells resulting in arrest of the cells in the contracted state.
 +
 +==== Exanthematous necrosis ====
 +An acute necrotizing process involving the gingivae, jawbones, and contiguous [[soft tissue]]s. It is of unknown cause, primarily affects children, and resembles noma. It differs from noma, however, in that it has a slight odor, tendency for self-limitation,​ low mortality rate, and normal [[leukocyte]] count
 +
 +==== Fat necrosis ====
 +That in which the neutral fats in [[adipose tissue]] are split into fatty acids and glycerol, usually affecting the [[pancreas]] and peripancreatic fat in acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis.
 +
 +==== Gingival necrosis ====
 +n death and degeneration of the cells and other structural elements of the gingivae (e.g., necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis).
 +
 +==== Interdental necrosis ====
 +A progressive disease that destroys the tissue of the papillae and creates interdental craters. Advanced interdental necrosis leads to a loss of periodontal attachment.
 +
 +==== Ischemic necrosis ====
 +Death and disintegration of a [[tissue]] resulting from interference with its [[blood]] supply, thus depriving the tissues of access to substances necessary for metabolic sustenance. It may occur in the periodontal ligament as a result of occlusal [[trauma]].
 +
 +==== Liquefaction necrosis ====
 +(colliquative n.) that in which the necrotic material becomes softened and liquefied.
 +
 +==== Moist necrosis ====
 +Necrosis in which the dead [[tissue]] is wet and soft.
 +
 +==== Necrosis of epithelial attachment ====
 +The death of cells composing the [[epithelial]] attachment. In a specific periodontitis produced by [[organism]]s similar to Actinomyces,​ necrosis of the epithelial attachment may exist, permitting a rapid apical shift of the base of the pocket.
 +
 +==== Periodontal ligament ====
 +Necrosis of a portion of the periodontal ligament, usually resulting from traumatic injury (e.g., in occlusal traumatism). Much of this necrotic change is the result of ischemia.
 +
 +==== Phosphorus necrosis ====
 +Necrosis of the jaw bone due to exposure to phosphorus.
 +
 +==== Postpartum pituitary necrosis ​ ====
 +Necrosis of the pituitary during the postpartum period, often associated with shock and excessive uterine bleeding during delivery, and leading to variable patterns of hypopituitarism.
 +
 +==== Radiation necrosis ====
 +The death of tissue caused by radiation.
 +
 +==== Subcutaneous fat necrosis ====
 +Induration of the [[subcutaneous]] fat in newborn and young infants.
 +
 +==== Ustilagi´nea Necrosis ====
 +Dry [[gangrene]] due to ergotism.
 +
 +==== Zenker'​s necrosis ====
 +(degeneration.) hyaline degeneration and necrosis of striated muscle.
 +
  
glossary/necrosis.txt · Last modified: 2012/10/16 14:40 (external edit)