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glossary:hormone

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glossary:hormone [2008/04/30 06:37]
Pat O'Connor
glossary:hormone [2012/10/16 14:40] (current)
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 +A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activity of certain [[cell]]s or organs. ​
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 +Many hormones are secreted by specialized [[gland]]s such as the [[thyroid gland]]. Hormones are essential for every activity of daily living, including the processes of digestion, [[metabolism]],​ growth, reproduction,​ and mood control. Many hormones, such as the [[neurotransmitter]]s,​ are active in more than one physical process. ​
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 +Examples of hormones include [[aldosterone]],​ [[antidiuretic hormone]](ADH),​ [[cortisol]],​ [[erythropoietin]],​ [[estrogen]],​ [[human chorionic gonadotropin]] (hCG), [[parathormone]],​ [[progesterone]],​ and [[testosterone]]. ​
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 +A hormone originally denoted a chemical made by a gland for export to another part of the body. Now a hormone is more broadly any chemical, irrespective of whether it is produced by a special gland or not, for export or domestic use, that "​controls and regulates the activity of certain cells or organs."​. The word "​hormao"​ which means "I set in motion"​ or "I stir up" was used in ancient Greece to covey the "vital principle"​ of "​getting the juices flowing."​ The word "​hormone"​ was resurrected in 1902 (not 1906, as the Oxford English Dictionary states) by the English physiologists Wm. M. Bayliss and Ernest H. Starling who that year reported their discovery of a substance made by glands in the small intestine that stimulated pancreatic secretion. They called the substance "​secretin"​ and dubbed it a "​hormone",​ the first known [[hormone]].
  
glossary/hormone.txt ยท Last modified: 2012/10/16 14:40 (external edit)