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glossary:glucose_tolerance_test

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glossary:glucose_tolerance_test [2012/10/16 14:40] (current)
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 +**Glucose tolerance test:** A [[blood]] test done to make the diagnosis of [[diabetes mellitus]]. The test may also be done for other purposes such as to diagnose [[hypoglycemia]] (low [[blood sugar]]) or a malabsorption syndrome in which sugar is not absorbed properly through the intestines into the[[bloodstream]]. ​
 +
 +The test was designed originally to determines the tolerance for the sugar [[glucose]]. "​Tolerance"​ refers to the body's ability to handle (tolerate) glucose. However, the test is not that simple. The test depends on a number of factors including the ability of the intestine to absorb glucose, the power of the [[liver]] to take up and store glucose, the capacity of the [[pancreas]] to produce [[insulin]],​ the amount of "​active"​ insulin it produces, and the sensitivity of the cells in the body to the action of insulin. ​
 +
 +For the test, you fast overnight and then are given a specific amount (100 grams) of glucose by mouth and then your blood glucose levels are monitored for 3 hours. Normally, the blood glucose should return to normal within 2 to 2½ hours. The outcome of the test may indicate: ​
 +
 +  * Normal glucose tolerance
 + 
 +  * Abnormal glucose tolerance
 + 
 +Depressed glucose tolerance -- in which the blood glucose peaks sharply before declining slower then usual to normal levels -- as in: 
 +
 +  * Diabetes mellitus
 + 
 +  * Hemochromatosis (iron overload disease)
 + 
 +  * Cushing syndrome (too much cortisol ["​cortisone"​] hormone)
 + 
 +  * Pheochromocytoma (adrenaline-producing [[tumor]])
 + 
 +  * Central nervous system [[lesion]]s
 + 
 +Increased glucose tolerance -- in which the blood glucose levels peak at lower than normal levels -- as in the:
 + 
 +  * Malabsorption syndrome
 + 
 +  * Insulinoma (an insulin-producing tumor)
 + 
 +  * Addison disease (adrenocortical insufficiency)
 + 
 +  * Hypopituitarism (underactivity of the pituitary gland)
 + 
 +  * Hypothyroidism (underactivity of the thyroid gland)
 + 
 +Since the dose of glucose is taken by mouth, the test is sometimes called an oral glucose tolerance test.
 +
 +See also:
 +
 +[[Diabetes]]
 +
 +[[Diabetes Gestational]]
 +
 +[[Diabetes Mellitus]]
 +
 +[[Diabetes Type 2]]
 +
 +[[http://​www.lymphedemapeople.com/​thesite/​lymphedema_and_diabetes.htm|Lymphedema and Diabetes]] ​
  
glossary/glucose_tolerance_test.txt · Last modified: 2012/10/16 14:40 (external edit)