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glossary:gas_gangrene

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glossary:gas_gangrene [2012/10/16 14:40] (current)
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 +(1)Gas gangrene is a severe form of gangrene (tissue death) usually caused by Clostridium perfringens (see also necrotizing [[subcutaneous]] infection ). It can also be from Group A Streptococcus. [[Staphylococcus aureus]] and [[Vibrio vulnificus]] can cause similar infections.
 +
 +**Alternative Names:**
 +Tissue infection - Clostridial;​ Gangrene - gas; Myonecrosis;​ Clostridial infection of tissues
 + 
 +**Causes, incidence, and risk factors:**
 +Gas gangrene occurs as a result of infection with Clostridium [[bacteria]] that, under anaerobic (low oxygen) conditions, produce toxins that cause [[tissue]] death and associated symptoms. Gas gangrene is rare, with only 1,000-3,000 cases yearly in the U.S.
 +
 +Gas gangrene generally occurs at the site of [[trauma]] or a recent surgical wound. About a third of cases occur spontaneously. Patients who develop this disease spontaneously often have underlying [[blood vessel]] [[disease]] (atherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries), [[http://​www.lymphedemapeople.com/​thesite/​lymphedema_and_diabetes.htm|diabetes]],​ or [[http://​www.lymphedemapeople.com/​thesite/​lymphedema_and_colon_cancer.htm|colon cancer]].
 +
 +The onset of gas gangrene is sudden and dramatic. [[Inflammation]] begins at the site of infection as a pale-to-brownish-red and extremely painful tissue swelling. Gas may be felt in the tissue as a crackly sensation when the swollen area is pressed with the fingers. The edges of the infected area expand so rapidly that changes are visible over a few minutes. The involved tissue is completely destroyed.
 +
 +Clostridium bacteria produce many different toxins, four of which (alpha, beta, epsilon, iota) can cause potentially fatal syndromes. In addition, they cause tissue death ( necrosis ), destruction of blood (hemolysis),​ local decrease in circulation ( vasoconstriction ), and leaking of the blood vessels (increased vascular permeability).
 +
 +These toxins are responsible for both the local tissue destruction and the systemic symptoms (the other symptoms that occur throughout the body).
 +
 +Systemic symptoms develop early in the infection. These consist of sweating, fever, and anxiety . If untreated, the individual develops a shock -like syndrome with decreased [[blood pressure]] (hypotension), ​ [[kidney]] failure , coma , and finally death. ​
 +
 +**(2)**Gas Gangrene also called is Clostridial and Myonecrosis. It is caused by Clostridium perfringens(ecrotizing subcutaneous infection). This bacteria is belong to Group A Streptococcus. Clostridium bacteria is produce toxins and it cause tissue death and associated symptoms. It generally occurs at a wound or surgical site, causing painful swelling and destruction of involved tissue. Other common clostridial species that cause gas gangrene include Clostridium bifermentans,​ Clostridium septicum, Clostridium sporogenes, Clostridium novyi, Clostridium fallax, Clostridium histolyticum,​ and Clostridium tertium. These environmental bacteria may enter the muscle through a wound and go on to proliferate in necrotic tissue and secrete powerful toxins. These toxins destroy nearby tissue, generating gas at the same time. A gas composition of 5.9% hydrogen, 3.4% carbon dioxide, 74.5% nitrogen and 16.1% oxygen was reported in one clinical caseGas gangrene is rapidly progressive and often fatal. Bacteria in the Clostridium species are gram-positive,​ spore-forming,​ anaerobic rods normally found in soil and the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. ​
 +
 +Gangrene is devided in four Types. Premary is [[Dry gangrene]]. If the blood flow is interrupted for a reason other than severe bacterial infection, the result is a dry gangrene. The early signs of dry gangrene are a dull ache and sensation of coldness in the area, along with pallor of the flesh. If caught early, the process can sometimes be reversed by [[vascular]] surgery. Second is Internal gangrene it section is a stub.In this gangrene the tissues become white. It is located inside the body, usually after surgery or trauma. Also called "white gangrene"​.Third is Wet gangrene like in dry gangrene, the [[blood flow]] is interrupted,​ but there is also a bacterial infection. Due to liquefactive [[necrosis]],​ liquid is released and last is Gas gangrene. Gas gangrene is a bacterial infection that produces gas within tissues in gangrene. It is a deadly form of gangrene usually caused by Clostridium perfringens [[bacteria]]. Treatment is usually surgical debridement and excision with amputation necessary in many cases. Antibiotics alone are not effective because they do not penetrate ischemic muscles sufficiently. However, [[penicillin]] is given as an adjuvant treatment to surgery.
 +
 +Causes of Gas Gangrene ​
 +
 +1.Clostridium perfringens(bacteria ).
 +
 +2.Atherosclerosis
 +
 +3.[[Surgery]]
 +
 +4.[[Trauma]]
 +
 +5.Gastrointestinal [[malignancy]]
 +
 +6.[[Hypoalbuminemia]]
 +
 +7.Chronic alcoholism
 +
 +8.[[http://​www.lymphedemapeople.com/​thesite/​lymphedema_and_diabetes.htm|Diabetes]]
 +
 +Symptoms of Gas Gangrene ​
 +
 +1.Moderate to severe pain around a skin injury ​
 +
 +2.Progressive swelling around a skin injury ​
 +
 +3.Moderate to high fever 
 +
 +4.Sweating ​
 +
 +5.Increased [[heart]] rate (tachycardia) ​
 +
 +Treatment of Gas Gangrene ​
 +
 +1.Treatment is usually debridement and excision with amputation necessary in many cases.
 +
 +2.[[http://​www.lymphedemapeople.com/​thesite/​lymphedema_antibiotics.htm|Antibiotics]] are not effective but penicillin is given as an adjuvant treatment to surgery. ​
 +
 +3.[[http://​www.lymphedemapeople.com/​thesite/​lymphedema_hyperbaric_wound_trea.htm|Hyperbaric oxygen therapy]] (HBOT) is used and acts to inhibit the growth of and kill the anaerobic C. perfringens.
 +
 +4. Analgesics may be required to control pain.
 +
  
glossary/gas_gangrene.txt ยท Last modified: 2012/10/16 14:40 (external edit)