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glossary:congenital_heart_disease

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glossary:congenital_heart_disease [2012/10/16 14:40] (current)
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 +A malformation of the heart or the large [[blood vessels]] near the heart. The term "​congenital"​ speaks only to time, not to causation; it means "born with" or "​present at birth."​
 +
 +Congenital heart disease is the most frequent form of major birth defects in newborns affecting close to 1% of newborn babies (8 per 1,000). This figure is an underestimate since it does not include some common problems, namely:
 +
 +Patent ductus arteriosus in preterm babies (a temporary condition) ​
 +Bicuspid (two cusps) aortic valve (the aortic valve usually has three cusps or flaps) ​
 +Mitral valve prolapse (drooping of a heart valve) ​
 +Peripheral pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of the [[lung]] vessels well away from the [[heart]]) ​
 +There are a great many types of congenital heart disease. Here is an outline of the major categories of congenital heart [[disease]] and some of the more prominent entities within those categories.
 +
 +Detour defects within the heart: Defects may cause [[blood]] to take an abnormal route through the heart, passing directly between the right and left sides of the heart. This occurs when there is a defect in the wall (the septum) that normally separates the right and left sides of the heart. There is "a hole in the heart."​ The two most common types of septal defect are:
 +
 +[[Atrial septal defect]] (ASD) 
 +[[Ventricular septal defect]] (VSD) 
 +Less common types of CHD with altered routes of blood flow include:
 +
 +Eisenmenger'​s complex ​
 +Atrioventricular (A-V) canal defect (also called an endocardial cushion defect) ​
 +Detour defect outside the heart: Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a special type of a blood routing problem located outside the heart. The ductus arteriosus is a prenatal shunt between the pulmonary artery and the aorta that remains open (patent) after birth, letting blood that should flow through the aorta to the body return to the lungs. ​
 +
 +Obstructive defects: A number of types of CHD obstruct [[blood flow]] within the heart or the great vessels near it. They do so via a narrowing that partly or completely blocks the flow of blood. The narrowing (a stenosis) can occur in heart valves, [[arteries]] or [[vein]]s. The three most common forms of CHD with obstructed blood flow are:
 +
 +Pulmonary (valvular) stenosis ​
 +Aortic stenosis ​
 +Coarctation of the [[aorta]] ​
 +Less common forms of CHD with obstructed blood flow include:
 +
 +Bicuspid aortic valve 
 +Subaortic stenosis ​
 +Ebstein'​s anomaly ​
 +Cyanotic defects ("blue babies"​):​ Some types of CHD cause cyanosis (bluing). The blood pumped to the body has less-than-normal amounts of oxygen. This results in cyanosis, a bluish discoloration of the [[skin]]. Types of cyanotic forms of CHD include:
 +
 +Tetralogy of Fallot ​
 +Transposition of the great arteries ​
 +Tricuspid atresia ​
 +Truncus arteriosus ​
 +Total anomalous pulmonary venous return ​
 +Pulmonary atresia ​
 +Hypoplastic heart defects: Part of the heart may selectively be underdeveloped or hypoplastic,​ as in:
 +
 +Right heart hypoplasia ​
 +Left heart hypoplasia ​
 +Other developmental heart defects: A number of other defects in heart development can occur, such as:
 +
 +Single ventricle (There is only one ventricle) ​
 +Double outlet right ventricle (Both the aorta and pulmonary artery emanate from the right ventricle) ​
 +Alternative names for congenital heart disease include: congenital heart defect, congenital heart malformation,​ congenital cardiovascular [[disease]],​ congenital cardiovascular defect, and congenital cardiovascular malformation.
 +
 +Common Misspellings:​ congenital heart diease, congenital heart desease ​
 +
  
glossary/congenital_heart_disease.txt ยท Last modified: 2012/10/16 14:40 (external edit)