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glossary:anesthesia [2008/05/10 08:52]
Pat O'Connor created
glossary:anesthesia [2012/10/16 14:40] (current)
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 +====== Anesthesia ======
 +(1) Loss of feeling or awareness. A general anesthetic puts the person to sleep. A local anesthetic causes loss of feeling in a part of the body such as a tooth or an area of [[skin]] without affecting consciousness. Regional anesthesia numbs a larger part of the body such as a leg or arm, also without affecting consciousness. The term "​conduction anesthesia"​ encompasses both local and regional anesthetic techniques. Many surgical procedures can be done with conduction anesthesia without significant pain. In many situations, such as a C-section, conduction anesthesia is safer and therefore preferable to general anesthesia. However, there are also many types of [[surgery]] in which general anesthesia is clearly appropriate.
  
 +(2) Total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensibility,​ induced by [[disease]],​ injury, acupuncture,​ or an anesthetic, such as chloroform or nitrous oxide.
 +Local or general insensibility to pain with or without the loss of consciousness,​ induced by an anesthetic.
 +A drug, administered for medical or surgical purposes, that induces partial or total loss of sensation and may be topical, local, regional, or general, depending on the method of administration and area of the body affected.
 +
 +===== Anesthesia Terms =====
 +
 +==== Anesthesia doloro´sa ====
 +Pain in an area or region that is anesthetic.
 +
 +==== Balanced anesthesia ====
 +Anesthesia that balances the depressing effects on the motor, sensory, reflex and mental aspects of nervous system function by the anesthetic agents. The philosophy encourages the use of several agents, each designed to affect one of the functions.
 +
 +==== Basal anesthesia ====
 +(a) Narcosis produced by preliminary medication so that the inhalation of anesthetic necessary to produce surgical anesthesia is greatly reduced. (b) n a state of narcosis, induced before the administration of a general anesthetic, that permits the production of states of surgical anesthesia with greatly reduced amounts of general anesthetic agents.
 +
 +==== Block anaesthesia,​ block anesthesia, conduction anaesthesia,​ conduction anesthesia, nerve block anaesthesia,​ nerve block anesthesia ====
 +Anesthesia of an area supplied by a nerve; produced by an anesthetic agent applied to the nerve.
 +
 +==== Bulbar anesthesia ====
 +That due to a [[lesion]] of the pons (A specific section of the brain formed by the rounded prominence on the front surface of the brainstem.)
 +
 +==== Caudal anesthesia ====
 +Injection of an anesthetic into the sacral canal.
 +
 +==== Central anesthesia ====
 +Lack of sensation caused by [[disease]] of the nerve centers. ​
 +
 +==== Closed circuit anesthesia ====
 +That produced by continuous rebreathing of a small amount of anesthetic gas in a closed system with an apparatus for removing carbon dioxide.
 +
 +==== Conduction Anesthesia ====
 +A local anesthesia induced by injecting the local anesthetic agent close to the nerve trunk, at some distance from the operative field.
 +
 +==== Crossed anesthesia ====
 +See under hemianesthesia. (crossed hemianesthesia , hemianesthesia crucia´ta loss of sensation on one side of the face and loss of pain and temperature sense on the opposite side of the body.)  ​
 +
 +==== Cryoanaesthesia,​ cryoanesthesia ====
 +Insensibility resulting from cold.
 +
 +==== Dissociated anesthesia, dissociation anesthesia ====
 +Loss of perception of certain stimuli while that of others remains intact.
 +
 +==== Electric anesthesia ====
 +That induced by passage of an electric current.
 +
 +==== Endotracheal anesthesia ====
 +That produced by introduction of a gaseous mixture through a tube inserted into the trachea.
 +
 +==== Epidural anesthesia ====
 +That produced by injection of the anesthetic into the extradural space, either between the vertebral spines or into the sacral hiatus (caudal block - anesthesia by injection of local anesthetic into the caudal or sacral canal.)
 +
 +==== Field block anesthesia ====
 +The anesthetic agent is injected around the boundaries of the area to be anesthetized,​ with no attempt to locate specific nerves.
 +
 +==== Frost anesthesia ====
 +Abolition of feeling or sensation as a result of topical refrigeration produced by a jet of a highly volatile liquid.
 +
 +==== General anaesthesia,​ general anesthesia ====
 +A state of total unconsciousness resulting from anesthetic drugs (as for a major surgical operation).
 +
 +==== Glove Anesthesia ====
 +An anesthesia with a distribution corresponding to the part of the [[skin]] covered by a glove
 +
 +==== Infiltration anesthesia ====
 +(a) Local anesthesia produced by injection of the anesthetic solution in the area of terminal nerve endings. (b)
 +A local anesthesia induced by injecting the anesthetic agent directly into or around the tissues to be anesthetized;​ used for operative procedures on the maxillary premolar, anterior teeth, and 
 +mandibular incisors. Also called field block.
 +
 +==== Inhalation anesthesia ====
 +That produced by the inhalation of vapors of a volatile liquid or gaseous anesthetic agent.
 +
 +==== Insufflation anesthesia ====
 +That produced by blowing a mixture of gases or vapors into the respiratory tract through a tube.
 +
 +==== Intraosseous anesthesia ====
 +The local anesthesia produced by the injection of a local anesthetic agent into the cancellous portion of a bone.
 +
 +==== Intrapulpa anesthesia ====
 +The injection of a local anesthetic agent directly into pulpal [[tissue]] under pressure.
 +
 +==== Intrasynovial anesthesia ====
 +Injection of a local anesthetic agent into a joint or tendon sheath.
 +
 +==== Intravenous anesthesia ====
 +The anesthetic agent, e.g. a barbiturate,​ is administered intravenously to effect. If an intravenous catheter is used, '​topping-up'​ amounts can also be administered as required.
 +
 +==== Intravenous regional anesthesia ====
 +See bier technique. (Bier technique - intravenous injection of a local anesthetic into a portion of the body isolated by a tourniquet, e.g. a distal limb, to anesthetize sensory motor nerves to the whole area. Called also intravenous regional analgesia.}
 +
 +==== Irreversible anesthesia ====
 +The loss of sensory and motor function of the part is permanent. The local injection of isopropyl alcohol has this effect.
 +
 +==== Local anaesthesia,​ local anesthesia ====
 +Loss of sensation in a small area of the body (as when a local anesthetic is injected for a tooth extraction).
 +
 +==== Lumbar epidural anesthesia ====
 +That produced by injection of the anesthetic into the epidural space at the second or third lumbar interspace.
 +
 +==== Muscular anesthesia ====
 +Loss or lack of muscle sense.
 +
 +==== Nerve block anesthesia ====
 +The anesthetic agent is deposited from a syringe and needle as close to the target nerve as possible. Several injections are often made if the landmarks for the location of the nerve are not outstanding.
 +
 +==== Obstetrical anesthesia ====
 +See obstetrical anesthesia. ​
 +
 +==== Open anesthesia ====
 +General inhalation anesthesia using a cone, without significant rebreathing of exhaled gases.
 +peripheral anesthesia ​ that due to changes in the peripheral nerves.
 +
 +==== Parasacral anesthesia ====
 +Regional anesthesia produced by injection of a local anesthetic around the sacral nerves as they emerge from the sacral foramina.
 +
 +==== Paravertebral anesthesia ====
 +Regional anesthesia produced by the injection of a local anesthetic around the spinal nerves at their exit from the spinal column, and outside the spinal dura.
 +
 +==== Parenteral anesthesia ====
 +Anesthesia induced by the injection of the agent, either intravenously,​ intraperitoneally,​ subcutaneously or intramuscularly.
 +
 +==== Peripheral anesthesia ====
 +Lack of sensation due to changes in the peripheral nerves.
 +
 +==== Permeation anesthesia ====
 +Analgesia of a body surface produced by application of a local anesthetic, most commonly to the mucous membranes. Called also surface anesthesia.
 +
 +==== Rectal anesthesia ====
 +Anesthesia produced by introduction of the anesthetic agent into the rectum.
 +
 +==== Refrigeration anesthesia ====
 +Local anesthesia produced by applying a tourniquet and chilling the part to near freezing temperature. Called also cryoanesthesia.
 +
 +==== Regional anesthesia ====
 +Insensibility caused by interrupting the sensory nerve conductivity of any region of the body: produced by (1) field block, encircling the operative field by means of injections of a local anesthetic; or (2) nerve block, making injections in close proximity to the nerves supplying the area.
 +
 +==== Regional anaesthesia,​ regional anesthesia ====
 +Loss of sensation in a region of the body produced by application of an anesthetic agent to all the nerves supplying that region (as when an epidural anesthetic is administered to the pelvic region during childbirth).
 +
 +==== Sacral anesthesia ====
 +Spinal anesthesia by injection of anesthetic into the sacral canal and about the sacral nerves.
 +
 +==== Saddle block anesthesia ====
 +See under block. Saddle block regional anesthesia in an area of the buttocks, perineum, and inner aspects of the thighs, by introducing the anesthetic agent low in the dural sac.
 +
 +==== Segmental anesthesia ====
 +Loss of sensation in a segment of the body due to a lesion of a nerve root.
 + 
 +==== Spinal anesthesia ====
 +1. regional anesthesia by injection of a local anesthetic into the subarachnoid space around the spinal cord.
 +2. loss of sensation due to a spinal lesion.
 +
 +==== Splanchnic anesthesia ====
 +Block anesthesia for visceral operation by injection of the anesthetic agent into the region of the celiac ganglia.
 +
 +==== Subarachnoid anesthesia ====
 +See intrathecal anesthesia (above).
 +
 +==== Surface anesthesia ====
 +The application of a local anesthetic agent in solution, as in eye drops, or as a jelly, cream or ointment. The use of cold materials which freeze the superficial layers of skin is not much used in veterinary surgery. See also permeation anesthesia (above).
 +
 +==== Surgical anesthesia ====
 +That degree of anesthesia at which operation may safely be performed. There is muscular relaxation, and coordinated movements, consciousness and pain sensations disappear; many of the spinal neuromuscular reflexes are abolished.
 +
 +==== Surgical anesthesia ====
 +That degree of anesthesia at which operation may safely be performed.
 +
 +==== Tactile anesthesia ====
 +Loss or impairment of the sense of touch.
 +
 +==== Topical anaesthesia,​ topical anesthesia ====
 +(a) Loss of sensation confined to the skin or mucous surfaces (as when benzocaine or Lidocaine is applied to the surface) (b) A form of local anesthetic agent with which the surface free nerve endings in accessible structures are rendered incapable of stimulation by applying a suitable solution directly to the surface of the area. Used on the surface soft tissue before a local anesthetic injection to anesthetize surface soft tissues for minor operative procedures.
 + 
 +==== Transsacral anesthesia ====
 +Sacral a. 
 +
 +Sources: Jonas: Mosby'​s Dictionary of Complementary and Alternative Medicine; MedicineNet;​ Free Dictionary
glossary/anesthesia.txt · Last modified: 2012/10/16 14:40 (external edit)